School-Observations--MOOSES/ASKER


The School Observation measures (Multi-Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES), Tapp, J.T., Wehby, J.H., & Ellis, D.N. (1995)) were developed for the Fast Track Project for real-time collection of target children’s interactions with their teachers and peers. The measures assess the frequency and duration of interactions with peers and teachers as well as the valence of those interactions (i.e. positive or negative).

Abstract

The School Observation measures were developed for the Fast Track Project for real-time collection of target children’s interactions with their teachers and peers. The measures assess the frequency and duration of interactions with peers and teachers as well as the valence of those interactions (i.e. positive or negative). In addition, measures of on-task behavior and the type of activity in which the child participated were recorded. The school observation data was collected using laptops and the Multi-Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES). This data was collected across four 30-minute sessions, two of which were in unstructured environments (i.e. lunch, recess) and two of which were during structured class time, for a total of two hours for each child. Observation sessions were conducted on four separate days with no more than two sessions conducted during a week period. For the most part, no child was observed on consecutive days.

Post-observation ratings (ASKER) were collected on the quality of the child’s general school behavior (Social Health Profile—36 questions), the child’s use of affect (the Minnesota Affective Rating Form—38 questions), and the general classroom ecology (the Classroom Atmosphere Ratings—10 questions). These post-observation ratings were completed after each 30-minute observation. In addition, once four observations were completed for a child, a fifth “ASKER” was completed in which the observer rated the child on each item based on his/her impressions across the four observation periods..

For all MOOSES variables, data were pooled by activity type (structured/unstructured). That is, all structured sessions were collapsed to determine the total frequency and duration of each event code observed during the structured activities. The same process was used for the unstructured sessions. Following the pooling of sessions, MOOSES variables were calculated on two dimensions. First, the rate per minute of each event code was calculated separately for structured and unstructured conditions. Rate per minute was calculated by taking the frequency of each event code and dividing it by the total number of minutes a child was observed during structured and unstructured sessions. Using rate per minute as one of the dimensions was necessary since the amount of time each child was observed during each activity was different. The second dimension calculated for MOOSES was percent time. Percent time was calculated by taking the total duration (seconds) of each event code and dividing it by the duration of activity type (structured/unstructured).

For all ASKER variables, data were collapsed across the four sessions and the fifth ASKER. That is, the mean score for each item was calculated and these mean scores were used in the development of the subscales. Subscale scores were created for two of the inventories from the ASKER post-observation ratings. For the Minnesota Affective Rating Form, four subscales were calculated: Positive Adjustment, Positive Affect, Social Withdrawal, and Negative Aggression/Affect. Three subscales were calculated for the Social Health Profile: Authority Acceptance, Cognitive Concentration, and Social Contact. The Classroom Atmosphere Ratings items were not included in any subscales. The following subscales are discussed briefly and then summarized in tables;

  • Positive Adjustment
  • Positive Affect
  • Social Withdrawal
  • Negative Aggression/Affect
  • Authority Acceptance
  • Cognitive Concentration
  • Social Contact

Analysts should note that some of the ratios have very low scoring. This is indicative of very low observation of the behavior. When variables are examined with higher than two decimal values, additional variability becomes evident. The user is encouraged to examine distributions for variables of interest.

Dataset Names

Raw Dataset Name: OyF
Scored Dataset Name: COBySOc

Keywords

Peer Interactions, Teacher Interactions, Postive Interactions, Negative Interactions, On-Task Behavior, Type of Activities, School Behavior, Classroom Ecology,