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Developed for the Pittsburgh Youth Study (Loeber, Stouthamer-Loeber, van Kammen & Farrington, 1991) which was adapted from instruments developed by the staffs of the Institute of Behavioral Science and of the Rochester Youth Development Study. Pittsburgh Youth Study, The Department of Psychiatry of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
The Expectations/Aspirations measure is a 22-item scale which assesses children's feelings about their goals and activities in life. Specifically, the measure contains questions regarding children's views of how important specific goals are, how far they would like to go in school, how far they think they will go in school, and how likely it is that they will meet specific goals. Each item in the measure which addresses the importance of specific goals ranges from 1 (very important) to 4 (not important at all); each item in the measure which addresses the likelihood of meeting the specific goals ranges from 1 (very likely) to 4 (not likely at all). For two items about schooling the children were offered a range of eight choices from 1 (8th grade or less) to 8 (other). There are two responses for "What kind of job would you like to get when you grow up?": 1 indicated that the child mentioned a job and 2 indicated that the child responded, "I don't know."
Scoring procedures were used to create three scales for this measure. The first scale, Current Importance, measures the importance an individual places on meeting specific goals. The second scale, Future Expectations I, measures the individual's beliefs in how likely he/she will be in achieving the same goals included in the Current Importance scale. The third scale, Future Expectations II, measure the individual's beliefs in how likely he/she will be in achieving these goals. The responses to "Do you think when you are a grown-up, you will be in trouble with the police?" were reversed to be consistent with the direction of the scale.
Analysts should be aware that the scoring for "Do you think that when you are a grown-up, you will be in trouble with the police?" is in the opposite direction than the scoring for the other items. In addition, analysts should be aware that in the scoring for "What kind of job would you like to get when you grow up?", a 1 indicates that the child mentioned a job and a 2 indicates that the child responded, "I don't know." Also be aware that the subscale Current Importance Scale contains six items for current importance and subscale Future Expectations I Scale contains the corresponding six items for future expectations.
Raw Dataset Name: CyAG
Scored Dataset Name: EXAySCc
Goal Orientation, Educational Objectives, Work Ethic, Values