Feelings Scale (CES-D)

The Feelings Scale (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression; CES-D) is a 20-item self-report measure designed to measure depressive symptoms in the general population (Radloff, 1977). The scale was developed to assess current levels of symptomatology, with emphasis on the affective component, namely, depressed mood. As compared with other depression scales that are used primarily for diagnosis, the CES-D is interpreted in terms of the level of symptoms and the association between depressive symptoms and other variables. The scale has been used extensively in other studies (e.g., Myers & Weissman, 1980; Roberts & Vernon, 1983) and is a useful tool to assess depressive symptoms in large samples.


The Feelings Scale (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) is a 20-item self-report measure that assesses symptoms of depression in the general population (Radloff, 1977). Each of the twenty items on the scale states an experience related to depression that the respondent may have had. Sixteen of the items express negative experiences and four items express positive experiences. Responses are coded on a four-point Likert scale and include: "Rarely, or none of the time (less than 1 day)," "Some or a little of the time (1-2 days)," "Occasionally or a moderate amount of time (3-4 days)" and "Most or all of the time (5-7 days)." For each item, the respondent selects the value (1, 2, 3 or 4) that best describes how frequently the experience occurred during the previous week

This scale does not contain subscales. In the original study, Ratloff (1977) reported high internal consistency among items (ranging from .84 to .90). Because of the high internal consistency, the author of the original study recommended using the total score. A later study (Miller-Johnson & Maumary-Gremaud, 1995) also reported high internal consistency among the 20 items, and again recommended use of the total score.

The total score on 20 items should be used to estimate depression. Although this scale has no subscales, in their 1995 study, Miller-Johnson & Maumary-Gremaud noted that if an estimate of a respondent's feelings of social rejection is needed, items 15 and 19 can be used together. However, they also reported a somewhat low reliability (0.58) for the items.

Dataset Names

Raw Dataset Name: PyD
Scored Dataset Name:FSCySPc


Family Finances, Financial Difficulties, Household Expenses, Money.