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U.S. Census Data


Target child home addresses from the Family Information Form (FIF, PxB) in each study year have been coded with respect to state, county, and tract/block numbering area codes from the U.S. Census, and can thereby be linked to summary information from the Census on households and individuals in the respective areas (see Addendum to this report for details of the coding process to date). Ten selected variables have been derived at the level of Census tract from the 1990 Census summary files for each student in each study year. These variables were drawn from Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls (1997), and are intended to reflect concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential stability. Variable values are proportions of individuals (or households, as applicable) in a census tract that meet defined criteria (e.g., individuals below poverty line, individuals born outside the U.S., households occupied by the owner).

The selected variables from the 1990 Census are available and ready for use, keyed to each student's address by year. Other items from the 1990 Census can be attached to an analysis dataset on the basis of the coded addresses reasonably easily (see separate instructions).

Analysts wishing to use a combination of variables should be alert to the range of variances across items. For analyses of tract-level attributes, weighting by either the total tract population or the target-child tract population is recommended, as appropriate to the analysis question. Also, the multilevel nature of the data should be taken into account for analyses involving both tract-level and child-level variables.

Data Availability

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11 May 2000