Parenting (Primary Caregiver)

Adapted from the Parental Discipline Scale and Parent Praise (Loeber, Stouthamer-Loeber, van Kammen & Farrington, 1991 and Thornberry, Huizinga, & Loeber, 1995). The Parental Discipline Scale is a revised version of the Discipline Scale. The Parent Praise scale is from the Positive Parenting Scale. Both are from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, The Department of Psychiatry of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.


Parenting-Primary Caregiver incorporates two scales, the Parental Discipline Scale (first 8 items) and Parent Praise (last 9 items). This 8-item scale provides parent report of the frequency of 8 different disciplinary strategies for the infraction of family rules. The 9-item scale provides a parent report on the frequency with which parents provide positive praise and support when their children do something that they like or approve of. All items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always).

Two different methods for scaling will be presented. The primary scaling procedure was derived from exploratory factor analyses on the Normative sample, conducted separately for the Discipline & Praise items. A more detailed discussion of the primary scaling procedure can be found in the addendum. The alternate scaling was constructed to closely parallel the algorithms used by Loeber and his colleagues in the Pittsburgh Youth Study's "Positive Parenting/Low Reinforcement" construct. It includes items from both the parent and youth versions of this measure, both combined and in separate scales. Although our alternate scale comprises the same items as their scale, our measure uses a 5-point scale, whereas theirs utilized a 3-point scale. Each scale score is derived from the mean of the items that compose it, with the exception of Low Reinforcement, which is the sum of the means of the parent and youth reports.

This measure was scaled so as to create identical scales as those generated by the youth's report on the About My Parent measure. Note that this scaling is different from what was used in the original Technical Report written by McMahon, Jones, & Kim (1997). The current scales are preferred because they are more specific. Although Item 8 ("Tell your child to get out or lock him/her out of the house for a while") has low variability, it was retained in the Harsh Discipline scale due to its consistency with more punitive forms of discipline.

Dataset Names

Raw Dataset Name: PyX
Scored Dataset Name: PPCySPc


Discipline, Punishment, Communication, Rewards, Positive Parenting, Empathy, Parent Child Relationship.