Supervision Questionnaire - Primary Caregiver

Adapted from the revised version of the Supervision/Involvement Scale of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber & van Kammen, 1998), which is related to family factors associated with delinquency (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986) and is based on the Moos' Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1975) and the Skinner, Steinhauer, & Santa-Barbara's (1983) Family Assessment Measure. The Pittsburgh Youth Study, The Department of Psychiatry of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.


The Supervision Scale - Primary Caregiver Grade 4+ version is a 20-item measure developed for this project to assess facets of parenting supervision and involvement. The questions in this revised questionnaire assess the primary caregiver's knowledge of the youth's whereabouts, the amount of discussion and planning regarding communication of the child's whereabouts, the amount of time that the youth is unsupervised and the parent's knowledge of the youth's friends.

Seven items in this revised questionnaire were not used in the scaling. Six items were not considered because the response format required either the specific indication of the time of day the child is expected home on school or weekend nights (items 4 and 6, respectively) or the responses were coded as categorical (items 14, 15, 16 and 20). One item (5) was eliminated because of a high level (58.8%) of missing data. The responses to the remaining 13 items used for scaling are coded on item-specific 5-point scales where 1 represents 'Almost Never' and 5 represents 'Almost Always'. Two of these items (8 and 13) failed to demonstrate any statistically significant relation to the other 11 items and are not considered to be representative of any specific dimension or construct. However, these two items were retained and suggested as important individual indicators of parental supervision concerning specific behavior of the child.

The scaling of the 13 items of this questionnaire was based on previously derived dimensions or constructs on the original measures (Loeber et al, 1998). A single confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), utilizing a least-squares estimation procedure was used to assess statistical support for the dimension of "Supervision / Involvement". The constructs of "Discussing Daily Activities", "Curfew Time" and "Influence of Friends" consisted of only two items and reliability estimates are based on the inter-item correlations.

The "Supervision / Involvement" scale is a measure of parental monitoring and can be used to assess the level of parental knowledge of the child's activities and companions. The next two scales also assess aspects of parental monitoring. The "Discussing Daily Activities" scale can be used to evaluate the frequency of parent-child communication about the child's activities and "Curfew Time" can be used to assess the extent to which the primary caregiver sets regulations on the timing of these activities for the child. The "Influence of Friends" scale is derived from parental perceptions of how positive an influence the child's friends have on him/her. This scale can be combined with other measures of peer deviancy and negative influences. Additionally, the scale and item responses presented here can be used to make a direct comparison between the responses by the child and the primary caregiver.

Dataset Names

Raw Dataset Name: PyV
Scored Dataset Name: SPGySPc


Parent Child Communication, Parental Involvement, Supervision, Peer Relationships, Authority.