School Adjustment – Child – Revised

Abstract: The School Adjustment - Child (Revised) questionnaire was created for the Fast Track project and contains two sets of items: A 20-item scored scale that evaluates children's perceptions of their current adjustment to school, and a set of 13 questions that elicit detailed information from respondents who dropped out of school and respondents who did not drop out. Each item on the 20-item scale is a statement about a school experience. The child selects the response that estimates how true each statement is for the past school year. Questionnaire items include statements about academic performance, discipline problems, and interactions with other students and staff. Response choices include: "Never True" (1), "Seldom True" (2), "Sometimes True" (3), "Usually True" (4), and "Always True" (5). Detailed-information items ask if the respondent attended school for at least part of the year, whether the school was a new school (i.e., a change of schools), the name of the school, and the type of school: Private, Public, Religious, Technical/Vocational, Alternative, or Other (with a fill-in answer for Other). Items also ask for the respondent's grade level for the coming school year, and overall grades in the previous year. For respondents who are not in school, items ask when the respondents were last enrolled, their reasons for leaving school, if they plan to go back, and if they are in a program that leads to a GED. Several questions also inquire if respondents have ever participated in a special program such as Mentoring, Job Shadowing, Apprenticeships, and others; which program the student participated in most recently, and how long (number of days) the student was a participant. A parent version of this measure was also administered to parents of children involved in the Fast Track Project. (See the separate technical report for School Adjustment - Parent (Revised).) The parent version and the child version have 12 of the scored items in common. A previous study of this meaure (Maumary-Gremaud, 2000) identified three subscales: Relationships with Other Students, Academic and Disciplinary Difficulties, and General Aspects about the School and Teachers. The ordering of responses in some items was reversed before scoring to provide consistency among all the item responses. Higher scores indicate better school adjustment; lower scores indicate poorer adjustment. All three scored subscales have moderate internal consistency and are correlated with each other, although the correlations are modest. T-tests of means for the Academic / Disciplinary Difficulties subscales shows significant differences between the normative and control groups. The distribution of the Relationships with Other Students subscale shows a ceiling effect in the normative group. Among the detailed-information items, chi-square tests for Items 5, 27, 28, 32, 33, and 40 through 46 do not allow rejection of the null hypothesis of independence between the type of response and the risk category of the respondent (normative or control.) However, frequency counts of responses to Item 35 ("What kind of school was it?") for Year 11 indicates a larger percentage of normative than control respondents attending all types of schools, except for "Alternative" schools, with significant chi-square results (c2 = 4.61, p = .03). For Item 38 ("What grades did you receive?"), a t-test of mean grades (on a 8-point scale) for Year 11 students indicates no significant difference between normative and control students. Among the detailed-information items, Item 35 (type of school) may provide a useful point of comparison for groups sampled, depending on the construct of interest.

Who Completed this Measure?: Target Child/Youth (now in adulthood)

Cohort 1 - Administrative History

  • Year 11 | grade 10 | age 16
  • Year 12 | grade 11 | age 17

Cohort 2 - Administrative History

  • Year 11 | grade 10 | age 16
  • Year 12 | grade 11 | age 17

Cohort 3 - Administrative History

  • Year 11 | grade 10 | age 16
  • Year 12 | grade 11 | age 17

Technical Reports:

Raw Dataset Name: CyAY

Scored Dataset Name: SARySCc

Academic Performance, Peer Relationships, School Discipline, School Satisfaction, School Transition

Is this Measure Available for Public Use?: Yes

Obtain Measure:
Download the measure here

SAS Code for Scale Creation:
Download the code here

Measure Items and Scales:

C11AY31 Specify other reason you left at that time?
C11AY34 What is the name of the school?
C11AY36 Specify other kind of school
C11AY39 Specify other grades you received last year
C11AY48 Specify other program you most recently participated?
cohort Cohort
site Site Name
tcid Child ID Number
C11AY29 When were you last enrolled in school? (mm/yyyy)
C11AY5 First of all, did you enter a new school this past year?
C11AY6 What kind of school were you in this past year?
C11AY7 This past school year was especially difficult for me
C11AY8 I had an easy time handling the new academic demands made on me
C11AY9 My school friends and I got along well this past year
C11AY10 Other kids tried to hit me or make fun of me this past year
C11AY11 I stayed out of trouble with teachers and the disciplinarians at school
C11AY12 I had a good year at school
C11AY13 School work was really hard this past year
C11AY14 I had a hard time making friends at school this past year
C11AY15 Other kids tried to make me do things that I should not do (like drugs or breaking rules)
C11AY16 I got into some trouble this year by breaking school rules
C11AY17 I liked the new things about school this past year
C11AY18 I did not do as well as I should have in academics this past year
C11AY19 I did not have many friends at my school this past year
C11AY20 Other kids bothered me this past year
C11AY21 Teachers were on me because I broke some rules
C11AY22 My school is a place where people treat me well
C11AY23 Most teachers were on me because I broke some rules
C11AY24 My school is a place where kids will succeed
C11AY25 Bad things happen to me at school
C11AY26 School is fun
C11AY27 Did you attend school during at least a part of the last school year?
C11AY28 Did you quit school last year?
C11AY30 What is the MAIN reason you left at that time?
C11AY32 Are you planning to go back to school next year?
C11AY33 Are you in a program outside of regular school that will help you get a GED?
C11AY35 What kind of school is it?
C11AY37 What grade of school will you be in this coming school year?
C11AY38 Overall, what grades did you receive last year in school?
C11AY40 Have your ever participated through your school in-A.Job shadowing, which is to spend time following workers at a work site
C11AY41 Have your ever participated through your school in-B.Mentoring, which involves being matched with an individual in an occupation
C11AY42 Have your ever participated through your school in-C.Cooperative education, which combines academic and vocational studies with a job in a related field
C11AY43 Have your ever participated through your school in-D.School-sponsored enterprise, which involves the production of goods or services by students for sale to or use by others
C11AY44 Have your ever participated through your school in-E.Tech prep, which is a planned program of study with defined career focus that links secondary and post-secondary education
C11AY45 Have your ever participated through your school in-F.Internship or apprenticeship, which is to work for an employer to learn about a particular occupation or industry
C11AY46 Have your ever participated through your school in-None
C11AY47 In which program did you most recently participate?
C11AY49 Altogether, how many days did you spend at a work site that was part of this program?
TREATMNT Treatment Group (Interv/Cntl)
NORM Members of Normative Sample
rc11ay7 rc11ay7
rc11ay10 rc11ay10
rc11ay13 rc11ay13
rc11ay14 rc11ay14
rc11ay15 rc11ay15
rc11ay16 rc11ay16
rc11ay18 rc11ay18
rc11ay19 rc11ay19
rc11ay20 rc11ay20
rc11ay21 rc11ay21
rc11ay23 rc11ay23
rc11ay25 rc11ay25
sac11frd School adj child: Friends Problems Yr 11
sac11dif School adj child: Acad. and Discip. Difficulties Yr 11
sac11gen School adj child: General Aspects Yr 11