The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder.
Foster, E. M., Jones, D. E., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2005). The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1767-1772.
Abstract: Objectives: We explored the economic implications of conduct disorder (CD) among adolescents in 4 poor communities in the United States. We examined a range of expenditures related to this disorder across multiple public sectors, including mental health, general health, school, and juvenile justice. Methods: We used self- and parental-report data to estimate expenditures during a 7-year period in late adolescence of a sample of youths. We contrasted expenditures for youths with CD and youths with oppositional defiant disorder, elevated symptoms (no CD diagnosis), and all others. Diagnosis was determined with a structured assessment. Results: Additional public costs per child related to CD exceeded $70000 over a 7-year period. Conclusions: Public expenditures on youths with CD are substantially larger than for youths with closely related conditions, reflecting the importance of prevention and early treatment for the disorder.