PCIT – Observer Impressions

Abstract: Observer Impressions is a live rating system used to code the three observational tasks that children engage in with their Primary Caregiver as part of the Parent-Child Interaction Test (PCIT) in grades 6 and 9: Daily Debriefing Task (4 minutes), Problem Solving Activity (7 minutes), and Planning a Positive Activity (5 minutes). The sequence of tasks is always the same, and occurs in the child's home, at grades 5 and 8. Observer Impressions is a 58-item measure that consists of three types of ratings completed by the child interviewer. The frequencies of various behaviors by parent and child are rated on a 3 point scales. For the most part, the same behaviors are rated for each of the tasks, except for 3 task-specific codes. Categories of ratings are based in part on the Oregon Social Learning Center's Lab Task Impressions Rating Scale (5th Grade), which can be found online via OSLC's website (www.oslc.org). Scales for the PCIT Observer Impressions Scale (Grade 5+) were obtained from exploratory factor analyses utilizing an Alpha extraction with an orthogonal rotation on responses from the Normative sample (n=318). Separate analyses were conducted on the Parent and Child items. Items 37, 56, 57, and 58 were excluded from the scaling. The results indicated 5 factors or scales for the Parent items and 6 scales for the Child items. Each scale score was calculated by taking an average of items comprising the scale if 50% or more of the item responses were available. The resulting scales, associated reliability estimates and descriptive indices for the Normative (Norm) and High Risk Control (HRC) samples are provided below. A more detailed discussion of the scaling procedure can be found in the addendum. All scales used in this Technical Report aggregate similar items across the 3 tasks in which parent-child dyads participated. Analysts interested in task-related differences in behavior will need to consider an alternate scaling algorithm. A note of caution that the Alpha coefficients for the Parent Negative Physical Contact and the Child Appropriate Emotional Expression scales are quite low. For the Parent Negative Physical scale, this is likely due to extremely low variability of the items that comprise that scale. Despite this circumstance, a decision to retain this scale was made on the basis that although infrequent, the presence of this behavior during the interaction may be very meaningful.

Who Completed this Measure?: Observer

Cohort 1 - Administrative History

  • Year 06 | grade 5 | age 11
  • Year 09 | grade 8 | age 14

Cohort 2 - Administrative History

  • Year 06 | grade 5 | age 11
  • Year 09 | grade 8 | age 14

Cohort 3 - Administrative History

  • Year 06 | grade 5 | age 11
  • Year 09 | grade 8 | age 14

Technical Reports:

Raw Dataset Name: OxM

Scored Dataset Name: PCTx

Child Behavior, Positive Parenting, Punishment, Task Orientation

Is this Measure Available for Public Use?: Yes

Obtain Measure:
Download the measure here

SAS Code for Scale Creation:
Download the code here

Measure Items and Scales:

O6MDD1 DDT: Parent Paraphrase Child
O6MDD2 DDT: Parent Inappropriate Beh
O6MDD3 DDT: Parent Express Feelings Appr
O6MDD4 DDT: Parent Praise the Child
O6MDD5 DDT: Parent Negative Phys Contact
O6MDD6 DDT: Parent Positive Phys Contact
O6MDD7 DDT: Child Inappropriate Behavior
O6MDD8 DDT: Child Express Feelings Appr
O6MDD9 DDT: Child Negative Phys Contact
O6MDD10 DDT: Child Positive Phys Contact
O6MDD11 DDT: Parent Stay on Task/Topic
O6MDD12 DDT: Parent Interrupting
O6MDD13 DDT: Child Stay on Task/Topic
O6MDD14 DDT: Child Interrupting
O6MDD15 DDT: Overall Positive Par Involv
O6MDD16 DDT: Overall Negative Par Involv
O6MDD17 DDT: Overall Positive Chld Involv
O6MDD18 DDT: Overall Negative Chld Involv
O6MPS19 PST: Parent Paraphrase Child
O6MPS20 PST: Parent Inappropriate Beh
O6MPS21 PST: Parent Express Feelings Appr
O6MPS22 PST: Parent Praise the Child
O6MPS23 PST: Parent Negative Phys Contact
O6MPS24 PST: Parent Positive Phys Contact
O6MPS25 PST: Child Inappropriate Behavior
O6MPS26 PST: Child Express Feelings Appr
O6MPS27 PST: Child Negative Phys Contact
O6MPS28 PST: Child Positive Phys Contact
O6MPS29 PST: Parent Stay on Task/Topic
O6MPS30 PST: Parent Interrupting
O6MPS31 PST: Child Stay on Task/Topic
O6MPS32 PST: Child Interrupting
O6MPS33 PST: Overall Positive Par Involv
O6MPS34 PST: Overall Negative Par Involv
O6MPS35 PST: Overall Positive Chld Involv
O6MPS36 PST: Overall Negative Chld Involv
O6MPS37 PST: Family Realistic Solutions
O6MPA38 PPT: Parent Paraphrase Child
O6MPA39 PPT: Parent Inappropriate Beh
O6MPA40 PPT: Parent Express Feelings Appr
O6MPA41 PPT: Parent Praise the Child
O6MPA42 PPT: Parent Negative Phys Contact
O6MPA43 PPT: Parent Positive Phys Contact
O6MPA44 PPT: Child Inappropriate Behavior
O6MPA45 PPT: Child Express Feelings Appr
O6MPA46 PPT: Child Negative Phys Contact
O6MPA47 PPT: Child Positive Phys Contact
O6MPA48 PPT: Parent Stay on Task/Topic
O6MPA49 PPT: Parent Interrupting
O6MPA50 PPT: Child Stay on Task/Topic
O6MPA51 PPT: Child Interrupting
O6MPA52 PPT: Overall Positive Par Involv
O6MPA53 PPT: Overall Negative Par Involv
O6MPA54 PPT: Overall Positive Chld Involv
O6MPA55 PPT: Overall Negative Chld Involv
O6MPA56 PPT: Family Realistic Solutions
O6MPA57 PPT: Parent Satisfied w/Proposed
O6MPA58 PPT: Child Satisfied w/Proposed
o6mdd12r Reversed - DDT: Parent Interrupting
o6mps30r Reversed - PST: Parent Interrupting
o6mpa49r Reversed - PPT: Parent Interrupting
pct6ppc Parent - Positive Communication
pct6pnb Parent - Negative Behavior
pct6pst Parent - Staying on Task-Not Interrupting
pct6ppp Parent - Positive Physical Contact
pct6pnp Parent - Negative Physical Contact
pct6cnb Child - Negative Behavior
pct6cst Child - Staying on Task-Positive Involvement
pct6cpp Child - Positive Physical Contact
pct6cnp Child - Negative Physical Contact
pct6cin Child - Interrupting
pct6cae Child - Appropriate Emotional Expression